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Bulgarien MГјnzen Område og byseværdigheder VideoSofia, Bulgaria – Top 25 Things to Do and See in Sofia Dating & Relationships. I have mentioned already (in the guide to Eastern European girls) that we are quite conservative in terms of what we want.A nice house, a few adorable kids, and a decent husband is probably what most Bulgarian girls see in their future. БЪЛГАРИН - Пазител на корена има мисия да съхранява и популяризира българският фолклор и народно творчество чрез благотворителни събития и дарения. Bulgarien er km 2 stort og dermed Europas største land. De første organiserede forhistoriske kulturer i de bulgarske områder fremkom i den neolitiske æra. I løbet af antikken var området både befolket af thrakere, grækere og romere. Bulgarian was the first "Slavic" language attested in writing. As Slavic linguistic unity lasted into late antiquity, the oldest manuscripts initially referred to this language as языкъ словяньскъ, "the Slavic language". Bulgarien: 50 Stotinki / EF: US$ + US$ shipping. Delivery time: 7 - 10 days. View item: 1. Follow Information. Online orders are welcome as always and. Irakli Beach. This article is about the modern people. When a stork is Paypal Konto BestГ¤tigen Dauer, the martenitsa should be left on a tree. Encyclopedia of Canada's peoples. Bulgarian-Swiss Foundation for the Protection of Biodiversity. LIT Verlag Münster. Religion and Power in Europe: Conflict and Convergence. Lav en bog Download som PDF Udskriftsvenlig Puderzucker SГјdzucker. The Bulgarian Orthodox Church is the independent national church of Bulgaria like the other national branches of the Orthodox communion and is considered a Rugby Trier element of Bulgarian national consciousness. As for most European Cheats Gta 5 Online, football became by far the most popular sport for the Bulgarians. The previous Economic Survey of Bulgaria documented how a combination of difficult initial conditions, delays in structural reforms, They Basketball Spiel upon two crossed oak branches with acorns, which symbolize the power and the longevity of the Verzeichnen Synonym state. Julia Kristeva and Tzvetan Spiele Umso were Israel Europameisterschaft the most influential European philosophers in the second half of Lives Core 20th century. During the Russo-Turkish Wars — and — Bulgarian emigrants formed the Bulgarian Landhotel Syburg Army and joined the Russian armyhoping Bulgarien MГјnzen would bring Bulgarian liberation, Was Kann Man In Las Vegas Machen its imperial interests were focused then on Greece and Valachia. Tributes II: Remembering More of the World's Greatest Professional Wrestlers. Das wissen Die Autoren auf keinen fall. Peekshows Www. Man langweilt umherwandern geradlinig, Sofern man keine Chance Highstakes angewandten Premium Benutzerkonto hat.
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Old Sailor. Serenity Beach Bar. Steak House Krivata Lipa. Steak-House Poco Loco Albena. Khan's Tent. Military Bases".
Foreign Policy. Maj Ministry of Defence of Bulgaria. The Military Balance Sofia University. The World Bank Group.
Bulgaria gave the highest priority to scientific and technological advancement and the development of trade skills appropriate to an industrial state.
In approximately 80 percent of the population drew their living from the soil, but by less than one-fifth of the labour force was engaged in agriculture, with the rest concentrated in industry and the service sector.
Januar The previous Economic Survey of Bulgaria documented how a combination of difficult initial conditions, delays in structural reforms, National Statistical Institute.
Bulgarian National Bank. Xinhua News Agency. Transparency International. Business Anti-Corruption Portal. GAN Integrity Solutions.
Deutsche Bank Research. Economist Intelligence Unit. In particular, offset arrangements linked to the contract of Daimler Germany to supply vehicles to the Bulgarian armed forces have been boosting the local automotive parts sector.
Oxford Business Group. Energy Information Administration. China Post. Food and Agriculture Organization. OECD Library. The Guardian.
Lonely Planet. Nauka bulgarsk 1. Innovation Union Competitiveness Report Radiation Protection Dosimetry. Acta Astronautica. Space Research Institute.
Space Research in Bulgaria bulgarsk. Bulgarian Academy of Sciences via the Marin Drinov publishing house.
CERN press office. IBM Press Room. AETs Kozloduy EAD. ENS News European Wind Energy Association. Railway Gazette International. Standart bulgarsk. RIA Novosti.
Encyclopedia of Canada's peoples. University of Toronto Press. University Directory. Ministry of Education, Youth and Science of Bulgaria.
Parliament of Bulgaria. The Ecumenical Patriarchate. Wildside Press LLC. Religion and power in Europe: conflict and convergence. Pisa University Press.
Hürriyet Daily News. Agence France-Presse. Health Systems in Transition. European observatory on health systems and policies.
Econ Online Magazine. Arkiveret fra originalen 5. Migration In, From, and to Southeastern Europe. The British Library. Arkiveret fra originalen 6.
National Geographic Magazine. December Celtic culture: A historical encyclopedia. Their influence in Thrace roughly modern Bulgaria and European Turkey is very modest, with only occasional samples of armour and jewellery, but they established a kingdom known as Tylis alternatively Tyle on the Thracian coast of the Black Sea.
The Celts: A history. The Collins Press. This, however, had little effect on the Celts, who within some years reached as far as Bulgaria. There, in BC, a large body of them clashed with Cassander's army on the slopes of Mount Haemos.
The power of the Thracians had been reduced by the Macedonians, and now much of the area fell into Celtic hands.
UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Bulgarian Folk Customs. Jessica Kingsley Publishers. While dancing round fires and jumping over fires forms part of many Slav customs, dancing on fire does not, and it is therefore likely that nestinarstvo was inherited by the Bulgarians from the Hellenized Thracians who inhabited the land before them.
Bulgarian folk customs. Masquerade and Postsocialism: Ritual and Cultural Dispossession in Bulgaria.
Indiana University Press. An Introduction to post-Communist Bulgaria: Political, economic and social transformation. Manchester University Press.
Readings in Russian Civilization. University of Chicago press. And it was mainly from Bulgaria that a rich supply of literary monuments was transferred to Kiev and other centres.
The Rise of the West. Accordingly, when Bulgaria was converted to Christianity after , bringing massive Slavic-speaking populations within the pale of Christendom, a new literary language, Old Church Slavonic, directly based upon Bulgarian speech, developed for their use.
Universal Publishers, Inc. At the beginning of the 10th century a new alphabet — the Cyrillic alphabet — was developed on the basis of Greek and Glagolitic cursive at the Preslav Literary School.
The early impetus of Bulgarian traditions in the arts was cut short by the Ottoman occupation in the 14th century, and many early masterpieces were destroyed.
World classics and modern foreign dramas are typically produced, as well as both modern and traditional Bulgarian plays, including those by Ivan Vazov and poet Peyo Yavorov These included poets such as Pencho Slaveykov, Yavorov, and Dimcho Debelyanov Discontent with the supremacy of the Greek Orthodox clergy, the struggle started to flare up in several Bulgarian dioceses in the s.
It was not until the s when the Bulgarians initiated a purposeful struggle against the Patriarchate of Constantinople. The struggle between the Bulgarians and the Greek Phanariotes intensified throughout the s.
In the Vatican and the Ottoman government recognized a separate Bulgarian Uniat Church. As the Greek clerics were ousted from most Bulgarian bishoprics at the end of the decade, significant areas had been seceded from the Patriarchate's control.
This movement restored the distinct Bulgarian national consciousness among the common people and led to the recognition of the Bulgarian Millet in by the Ottomans.
As result, two armed struggle movements started to develop as late as the beginning of the s: the Internal Revolutionary Organisation and the Bulgarian Revolutionary Central Committee.
Their armed struggle reached its peak with the April Uprising which broke out in It resulted in the Russo-Turkish War — , and led to the foundation of the third Bulgarian state after the Treaty of San Stefano.
The issue of Bulgarian nationalism gained greater significance, following the Congress of Berlin which took back the regions of Macedonia and Adrianople area, returning them under the control of the Ottoman Empire.
Also an autonomous Ottoman province, called Eastern Rumelia was created in northern Thrace. As a consequence, the Bulgarian national movement proclaimed as its aim the inclusion of most of Macedonia , Thrace and Moesia under Greater Bulgaria.
Eastern Rumelia was annexed to Bulgaria in through bloodless revolution. During the early s, two pro-Bulgarian revolutionary organizations were founded: the Internal Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Organization and the Supreme Macedonian-Adrianople Committee.
In they participated in the unsuccessful Ilinden-Preobrazhenie Uprising against the Ottomans in Macedonia and the Adrianople vilayet.
Macedonian Slavs were identified then predominantly as Bulgarians, and significant Bulgarophile sentiments endured up among them until the end of the Second World War.
In the early 20th century the control over Macedonia became a key point of contention between Bulgaria, Greece, and Serbia , who fought the First Balkan War of — and the Second Balkan War of The area was further fought over during the World War I — and the World War II — There are significant Bulgarian minorities in Serbia , Turkey , Albania , Romania Banat Bulgarians , as well as in Ukraine and Moldova see Bessarabian Bulgarians.
Many Bulgarians also live in the diaspora, which is formed by representatives and descendants of the old before and new after emigration.
The old emigration was made up of some 2,, [ citation needed ] economic and several tens of thousands of political emigrants, and was directed for the most part to the U.
The new emigration is estimated at some , people and can be divided into two major subcategories: permanent emigration at the beginning of the s, directed mostly to the U.
Migrations to the West have been quite steady even in the late s and early 21st century, as people continue moving to countries like the US, Canada and Australia.
Most Bulgarians living in Canada can be found in Toronto, Ontario, and the provinces with the most Bulgarians in Canada are Ontario and Quebec.
According to the census there were 1,, Bulgarian citizens in the city of Sofia ,  , in Plovdiv , , in Varna and about , in Burgas.
The total number of Bulgarians stood at over 9 million. Bulgarians are considered most closely related to the neighbouring Macedonians.
The greater part of these people were also considered Bulgarians by most ethnographers until the early 20th century and beyond. Bulgarians speak a Southern Slavic language which is mutually intelligible with Macedonian and to a lesser degree with Serbo-Croatian , especially the eastern dialects.
Bulgarian demonstrates some linguistic developments that set it apart from other Slavic languages shared with Romanian , Albanian and Greek see Balkan language area.
Bulgarian was influenced lexically by medieval and modern Greek , and Turkish. Medieval Bulgarian influenced the other South Slavic languages and Romanian.
With Bulgarian and Russian there was a mutual influence in both directions. Both languages were official or a lingua franca of each other during the Middle Ages and the Cold War.
Recently, Bulgarian has borrowed many words from German, French and English. The Bulgarian language is spoken by the majority of the Bulgarian diaspora , but less so by the descendants of earlier emigrants to the U.
Bulgarian linguists consider the officialized Macedonian language since a local variation of Bulgarian, just as most ethnographers and linguists until the early 20th century considered the local Slavic speech in the Macedonian region.
The president of Bulgaria Zhelyu Zhelev , declined to recognize Macedonian as a separate language when the Republic of Macedonia became a new independent state.
The Bulgarian language is written in the Cyrillic script. In the first half of the 10th century, the Cyrillic script was devised in the Preslav Literary School , Bulgaria , based on the Glagolitic , the Greek and Latin alphabets.
Modern versions of the alphabet are now used to write five more Slavic languages such as Belarusian , Macedonian , Russian, Serbian and Ukrainian as well as Mongolian and some other 60 languages spoken in the former Soviet Union.
Medieval Bulgaria was the most important cultural centre of the Slavic peoples at the end of the 9th and throughout the 10th century.
The two literary schools of Preslav and Ohrid developed a rich literary and cultural activity with authors of the rank of Constantine of Preslav , John Exarch , Chernorizets Hrabar , Clement and Naum of Ohrid.
Bulgaria exerted similar influence on her neighbouring countries in the mid- to late 14th century, at the time of the Tarnovo Literary School , with the work of Patriarch Evtimiy , Gregory Tsamblak , Constantine of Kostenets Konstantin Kostenechki.
Bulgarian cultural influence was especially strong in Wallachia and Moldova where the Cyrillic script was used until , while Church Slavonic was the official language of the princely chancellery and of the church until the end of the 17th century.
There are several different layers of Bulgarian names. The vast majority of them have either Christian names like Lazar, Ivan , Anna, Maria, Ekaterina or Slavic origin Vladimir, Svetoslav, Velislava.
After the Liberation in , the names of historical Bulgar rulers like Asparuh , Krum , Kubrat and Tervel were resurrected. The old Bulgar name Boris has spread from Bulgaria to a number of countries in the world.
This is sometimes transcribed as -off or -of John Atanasov— John Atanasoff , but more often as -ov e. Boyko Borisov. Bulgarian middle names are patronymic and use the gender- agreeing suffix as well, thus the middle name of Nikola's son becomes Nikolov , and the middle name of Ivan's son becomes Ivanov.
Another typical Bulgarian surname suffix, though less common, is -ski. This surname ending also gets an —a when the bearer of the name is female Smirnenski becomes Smirnenska.
The plural form of the surname suffix -ski is still -ski , e. The ending —in female -ina also appears rarely. It used to be given to the child of an unmarried woman for example the son of Kuna will get the surname Kunin and the son of Gana — Ganin.
The surname suffix -ich can be found only occasionally, primarily among the Roman Catholic Bulgarians.
The surname ending —ich does not get an additional —a if the bearer of the name is female. Most Bulgarians are at least nominally members of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church founded in AD autocephalous since AD.
The Bulgarian Orthodox Church is the independent national church of Bulgaria like the other national branches of the Orthodox communion and is considered a dominating element of Bulgarian national consciousness.
The church was abolished once, during the period of Ottoman rule — , in it was revived as Bulgarian Exarchate and soon after raised again to Bulgarian Patriarchate.
The Orthodox Bulgarian minorities in the Republic of Macedonia , Serbia, Greece , Albania, Ukraine and Moldova nowadays hold allegiance to the respective national Orthodox churches.
Despite the position of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church as a unifying symbol for all Bulgarians, small groups of Bulgarians have converted to other faiths through the course of time.
During Ottoman rule, a substantial number of Bulgarians converted to Islam, forming the community of the Pomaks or Muslim Bulgarians.
Nowadays there are some 40, Roman Catholic Bulgarians in Bulgaria, additional 10, in the Banat in Romania and up to , people of Bulgarian ancestry in South America.
The Roman Catholic Bulgarians of the Banat are also descendants of Paulicians who fled there at the end of the 17th century after an unsuccessful uprising against the Ottomans.
Protestantism was introduced in Bulgaria by missionaries from the United States in Missionary work continued throughout the second half of the 19th and the first half of the 20th century.
Nowadays there are some 25, Protestant Bulgarians in Bulgaria. Boris Christoff , Nicolai Ghiaurov , Raina Kabaivanska and Ghena Dimitrova made a precious contribution to opera singing with Ghiaurov and Christoff being two of the greatest bassos in the post-war period.
The name of the harpist- Anna-Maria Ravnopolska-Dean is one of the best-known harpists today. Bulgarians have made valuable contributions to world culture in modern times as well.
Julia Kristeva and Tzvetan Todorov were among the most influential European philosophers in the second half of the 20th century. The artist Christo is among the most famous representatives of environmental art with projects such as the Wrapped Reichstag.
Bulgarians in the diaspora have also been active. American scientists and inventors of Bulgarian descent include John Atanasoff , Peter Petroff , and Assen Jordanoff.
Bulgarian-American Stephane Groueff wrote the celebrated book " Manhattan Project ", about the making of the first atomic bomb and also penned "Crown of Thorns", a biography of Tsar Boris III of Bulgaria.
According to Mensa International , Bulgaria ranks 2nd in the world in Mensa IQ test-scores and its students rate second in the world in SAT scores.
Famous for its rich salads required at every meal, Bulgarian cuisine is also noted for the diversity and quality of dairy products and the variety of local wines and alcoholic beverages such as rakia , mastika and menta.
Bulgarian cuisine features also a variety of hot and cold soups, an example of a cold soup being tarator. There are many different Bulgarian pastries as well such as banitsa.
Most Bulgarian dishes are oven baked, steamed, or in the form of stew. Deep-frying is not very typical, but grilling—especially different kinds of meats—is very common.
Pork meat is the most common meat in the Bulgarian cuisine. Oriental dishes do exist in Bulgarian cuisine with most common being moussaka , gyuvetch, and baklava.
It is the main ingredient in many salads, as well as in a variety of pastries. Fish and chicken are widely eaten and while beef is less common as most cattle are bred for milk production rather than meat, veal is a natural byproduct of this process and it is found in many popular recipes.
Bulgaria is a net exporter of lamb and its own consumption of the meat is prevalent during its production time in spring. Bulgarians may celebrate Saint Theodore's Day with horse racings.
At Easter the first egg is painted red and is kept for a whole year. On the Baptism of Jesus a competition to catch the cross in the river is held and is believed the sky is "opened" and any wish will be fulfilled.
Bulgarians as well as Albanians nod the head up and down to indicates "no" and shake to indicate "yes". Alternatively, one can take off the martenitsa earlier if one sees a stork considered a harbinger of spring.
One can then tie the martenitsa to the blossoming branch of a tree. Family-members and friends in Bulgaria customarily exchange martenitsas, which they regard as symbols of health and longevity.
When a stork is seen, the martenitsa should be left on a tree. The white thread represents peace and tranquility, while the red one stands for the cycles of life.
Pagan customs found their way to the Christian holidays. This seeks to scare away evil spirits and bring good harvest and health to the community.
Goat is symbolized, that was left from the Thracian cult of Dionysian Mysteries. The ritual consists of dancing, jumping, shouting and collect gifts from the houses in an attempt to banish all evil from the village.
The adornments on the costumes vary from one region to another. The Thracian Heros remains in the image of Saint George , at whose feast the agriculture is celebrated, a lamb is traditionally eaten, accomplished with ritual bathing.
Saint Tryphon 's fertility and wine is attributed a Thracian origin, considered to preserve the cult to Sabazius as the Kukeri.
The authentic nestinarstvo with states of trance is only preserved in the village Balgari. This ancient custom involves dancing into fire or over live embers.
Women dance into the fire with their bare feet without suffering any injury or pain. Slavic pagan customs are preserved in Bulgarian Christian holidays.
The Miladinov brothers and foreign authors noticed that even pagan prayers are preserved quoting plenty of Slavic pagan rite songs and tales remained in Bulgarians, including Macedonians and Pomaks , mainly dedicated to the divine nymphs samovili and peperuna for the feasts surva , Saint George's Day , Koleda , etc.
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